THE WAYS OF ROME.
Roman expansion occurred along pre-existing road routes communicating with the territories of antagonistic peoples, so the stages of Roman expansion in Italy also indicate the chronology of the growth and development of the road system.
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The Appian Way arose in this context, as a military route that allowed for faster communication with the southern borders of the conquered territory. The road was later extended as other territories fell under Rome’s rule.
The Via Aemilia traces a foothill track that originates from connecting centers undergoing urbanization to the terminals of the secondary ridges of the Apennines on the Po-Adriatic side. The Emilianoromagnolo Apennines offer a ‘comb-like’ ridge structure: from the main watershed descend parallel secondary ridges, at their terminals in the plains develop agricultural centers that exploit the fertile alluvial soil and communicate with the direction of the Apennine ridge.
It was the third major route of Roman expansion in chronological order and the first of the two great roads to the north in order of importance; it traversed Umbria and the Marches, arriving on the Adriatic coast at Fanum and ending at Senigallia.
The Alps consist of a corrugation of the earth’s surface in the shape of a semicircle that starting at the Cadibona Pass, close to the Ligurian Sea, runs westward then curves northward and then eastward until it tapers off with the Carpathian and Dinaric Alps in the eastern plains of Europe and the Balkans. This great corrugation is characterized by series of transverse valleys, crowned by rocky peaks of considerable height; communications from the Italian peninsula to Europe, whichever direction they face, must negotiate these rocky ridges.
PIERO BARGELLINI – PILGRIMS IN ROME
From the book “The Four Churches” the Basilicas of St. Peter’s in the Vatican, St. Paul Outside the Walls, St. Mary Major, and St. John Lateran are briefly described.
GIOVANNI CASELLI and PRINCE CARLO of England.
Prof. Giovanni Caselli, a historian and walker, has long been concerned with the “Historical Routes” that have traversed all of Italy and Europe since the Middle Ages, and on which culture, religion, trade, and the very life of peoples have walked for centuries. Giovanni Caselli is a founding member of our Via Romea Germanica Association; but he was among the first to talk about rediscovering the Francigena, and this photo shows him with Prince Charles of England in Val d’Orcia in 1986, illustrating the ancient Way to him; the Prince followed up with a letter of appreciation from him
GIOVANNI CASELLI – URBAN AND ARCHITECTURAL EMERGENCIES ON THE VIA ROMEA DI STADE IN CASENTINO
Prof. Giovanni Caselli presents his study of Casentino, the area that stretches from the Romagna Ridge over the Tuscan mountains and hills toward Arezzo
ILARIA DI COCCO and PIER LUIGI DALL’AGLIO – THE LINE AND THE NET.
In this part of the Volume “La Linea e La Rete” edited by the Italian Touring Club and the Emilia-Romagna Region, the authors describe the Historical Viability in Emilia-Romagna and in particular, referring to the “Annales Stadenses,” of the Via Romea Germanica, also including the characteristics of the Bidente Valley.
GIORGIO INNOCENTI GHIACCINI – VIA ROMEA IN CASENTINO
In this research, the author summarizes his historical research in Casentino, indicating events, roads, villages, etc., related to the passage of pilgrims and wayfarers. Useful for understanding the Via Romea Germanica and its history in this part of Tuscany.
OSIRIDE GUERRINI – (Ravenna) – A JOURNEY OF SEQUENCES ON THE ROMAN ROAD: HISTORY OF A COASTAL ROAD.
Ravenna has been of fundamental importance for pilgrimages and connections by sea and land: not only because of its History, but also because of the continuous environmental and geo-morphological variation, related to subsidence, the shifting of the Adriatic coast, the variation of the course of rivers and marshy areas, land reclamation, and the birth of real “islands.” In this report, the author accurately and in great detail describes Ravenna’s communications from the Roman Empire to recent centuries.